General Provisions and Basic Fire Safety Concepts

Translated by Alexandra Igna (2019)

Ensuring fire safety is achieved by meeting fire safety requirements - special social and/or technical conditions established by the Russian Federation legislation, regulatory documents or by a state-authorized body.

Russian fire safety legislation is based on the Constitution of the Russian Federation and it includes the Federal Law of December 21, 1994, N 69-ФЗ “On Fire Safety”, federal laws and other regulatory legal acts, as well as laws and other regulatory legal acts subjected to the Constitution and municipal laws regulating fire safety issues.

Fire safety regulations are national standards, codes of rules, and other documents containing fire safety requirements, the voluntary application of which ensures compliance with the requirements of Federal Law of 22 July 2008 N 123-ФЗ "Technical regulations on fire requirements fire safety”.


Basic Concepts In The Field Of Fire Safety

The combustion process is the course of an exothermic chemical reaction and the conditions of its progressive self-acceleration.

Fuel medium - an environment that can ignite when exposed to an ignition source.

The ignition source is a means of exposing the energy that initiates combustion.

Tanning - uncontrolled burning outside a special hearth, without causing any damage.

Fire safety statement - a conformity assessment form containing information on fire safety measures designed to ensure the normative value of the fire risk in the installation that needs to be protected.

Object of protection - products, including properties of citizens or legal entities, state or municipal property (including objects located on the territories of settlements, as well as buildings, structures, vehicles, technological installations, equipment, aggregates, products and other properties) which have established fire safety requirements to prevent fire and to protect people in the event of fire.

Hazardous fire factors - fire factors whose impact could lead to personal injury, poisoning or death and/or property damage.

Primary means of extinguishing fires - means of extinguishing fires used to fight fires in the initial stage of the development.

Fire safety is the protection of persons, property, society and the state against fires.

Fire - uncontrolled burning, which causes material damage, harmful to the life and health of citizens, the interests of society and the state.


Fire Classification

Depending on the combustible material, fires are classified as follows:

A - fires caused by solid combustible substances and materials

B - fires caused by flammable or solid liquids and melting materials;

C – fires caused by gases

D – fires caused by metals

E - fires caused by combustible substances and fabrics part of live electrical installations

F - fires caused by nuclear materials, radioactive waste and radioactive substances.


Fire Hazards

Hazardous fire factors affecting people and property include:

  • flames and sparks;

  • heat flow;

  • increased ambient temperature;

  • increased concentration of toxic combustion products and thermal decomposition;

  • low oxygen concentration;

  • low visibility in smoke.

Accompanying manifestations of dangerous fire factors are:

  • fragments, parts of collapsed buildings, structures, technological installations, equipment, assemblies, products and other properties;

  • radioactive and toxic substances and materials released into the environment from destroyed technological installations, equipment, aggregates, products and other properties;

  • high voltage output to the conductive parts of technological installations, equipment, units, products and other properties;

  • dangerous factors of an explosion caused by a fire;

  • exposure to fire-fighting agents.


Rights and obligations of fire safety organizations

The rights and obligations of organizations involved in the field of fire safety are provided in art. 37 of the Law on Fire Safety.

The heads of organizations have the right to:

  • create, reorganize and liquidate fire protection units which they have maintained at their own expense;

  • submit fire safety proposals to state authorities and local self-governing bodies;

  • perform tasks needed to establish the causes and circumstances of a fire that has occurred in the organization;

  • establish social and economic incentive measures to ensure fire safety;

  • receive information on fire safety issues, including as prescribed by management bodies and fire departments.

Heads of organizations must:

  • comply with fire safety requirements, as well as firefighters' requirements, regulations and other legal requirements;

  • develop and implement fire safety measures;

  • carry out fire propaganda as well as train employees in implementing fire safety measures;

  • maintain fire protection systems and means, including primary fire extinguishers, in order to prevent their use for other purposes;

  • assist firefighters in extinguishing fires, establishing the causes and conditions of their occurrence and development, as well as identifying those responsible for violating fire safety requirements and the occurrence of fires;

  • provide the necessary forces and means, in the prescribed manner, for extinguishing fires in the territories of the organizations;

  • ensure the access of firefighters when performing their duties on the territory, in buildings, structures and other objects belonging to organizations;

  • provide, at the request of firefighting officials, information and documents on the state of fire safety in organizations, including product fire hazard information as well as on fires occurring in their territories and their consequences;

  • immediately inform the fire department about the fires that have occurred, the malfunctions of the existing fire protection systems and equipment, the changes in the condition of the roads and passages;

  • promote volunteer firefighters.

The heads of organizations directly manage the fire safety system in their competence and bear personal responsibility for the observance of fire safety requirements.




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